The fixture pits the African Champions League winners – Esperance of Tunisia – against the African Confederation Cup champions – Raja Casablanca of Morocco.
The match is traditionally played at the home of the Champions League winners, although it has previously been played elsewhere in Africa.
Caf confirmed that its executive committee had decided that the 2018 Super Cup would be played in Qatar – with the “date and time announced later”.
Esperance, who may have expected to host the match in Rades, have not officially commented as yet, but the news sparked a wave of anger amongst die-hard Esperance fans.
“This is our 100th anniversary and we want to play this game here,” an ex-spokesperson for the Esperance Ultras told BBC Sport.
Qatar will host the 2022 Fifa World Cup.